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The real exchange rate (RER) is the purchasing power of a currency relative to another at current exchange rates and prices.It is the ratio of the number of units of a given country's currency necessary to buy a market basket of goods in the other country, after acquiring the other country's currency in the foreign exchange market, to the number of units of the given country's currency that would be necessary to buy that market basket directly in the given country.They also incorporate genetic algorithm as an optimizing technique for adapting parameters of ANN which is then compared with standard backpropagation and backpropagation combined with K-means clustering algorithm.Finally, the authors find out that their suggested hybrid neural network is able to produce more accurate forecasts than the standard models and can be helpful in eliminating the risk of making the bad decision in decision-making process. Profits or losses accrue as the exchange rate of that currency fluctuates on the open market.This reduces rounding issues and the need to use excessive numbers of decimal places.There are some exceptions to this rule: for example, the Japanese often quote their currency as the base to other currencies.Even if a company expects to be paid in its own currency, it must assess the risk that the buyer may not be able to pay the full amount due to currency fluctuations.
If all goods were freely tradable, and foreign and domestic residents purchased identical baskets of goods, purchasing power parity (PPP) would hold for the exchange rate and GDP deflators (price levels) of the two countries, and the real exchange rate would always equal 1.In order to determine which is the fixed currency when neither currency is on the above list (i.e.both are "other"), market convention is to use the fixed currency which gives an exchange rate greater than 1.000.Forex contracts involve the right to buy or sell a certain amount of a foreign currency at a fixed price in U. It is extremely rare that individual traders actually see the foreign currency.Instead, they typically close out their buy or sell commitments and calculate net gains or losses based on price changes in that currency relative to the dollar over time.