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In the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos proposed a heliocentric system, according to which Earth and the planets revolved around the Sun.

The geocentric system remained dominant until the Scientific Revolution.

The five classical planets, being visible to the naked eye, have been known since ancient times and have had a significant impact on mythology, religious cosmology, and ancient astronomy.

In ancient times, astronomers noted how certain lights moved across the sky, as opposed to the "fixed stars", which maintained a constant relative position in the sky.

it was almost universally believed that Earth was the center of the Universe and that all the "planets" circled Earth.

The reasons for this perception were that stars and planets appeared to revolve around Earth each day The first civilization known to have a functional theory of the planets were the Babylonians, who lived in Mesopotamia in the first and second millennia BC.

The oldest surviving planetary astronomical text is the Babylonian Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, a 7th-century BC copy of a list of observations of the motions of the planet Venus, that probably dates as early as the second millennium BC.

Venus, Mercury, and the outer planets Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn were all identified by Babylonian astronomers.

These schemes, which were based on geometry rather than the arithmetic of the Babylonians, would eventually eclipse the Babylonians' theories in complexity and comprehensiveness, and account for most of the astronomical movements observed from Earth with the naked eye.The concept has expanded to include worlds not only in the Solar System, but in hundreds of other extrasolar systems.The ambiguities inherent in defining planets have led to much scientific controversy.These would remain the only known planets until the invention of the telescope in early modern times.The ancient Greeks initially did not attach as much significance to the planets as the Babylonians.

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